Dr Emma Cohen is an anthropologist at the Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford . She has researched and written on a range of widespread cultural phenomena, including spirit possession, witchcraft and sorcery, divination, mind-body dualism, afterlife beliefs, and Harry Potter. Her research addresses the question of why these phenomena are cross-culturally widespread, drawing from and developing our scientific understanding of how human minds work. In The Mind Possessed (OUP, 2007), Cohen develops a radical new approach to explaining the transmission of spirit possession ideas and practices, based on recent discoveries in the cognitive sciences and on long-term fieldwork with a group of Afro-Brazilian spirit mediums in Brazil. Her most recent work focuses on the regularities in the ways in which children and adults across different cultural contexts intuitively reason about the relationship between bodies and minds. This research further explores how the same sorts of intuitions that guide mind-body thinking also influence the form, appeal, and spread of a huge range of cultural phenomena, from Hollywood comedies about mind swaps to mind-over-matter magical displays to common ideas about illnesses and their treatments.
Cohen starts by asking everyone to imagine what they could experience if they left their body. Can one know, remember, see, learn, hope for things? Can one feel hungry, go to the toilet, feel cold, feel itchy or feel sexual desires? What is imaginable varies culturally only in the west is there a separation between "mind" and "body" as indicated in the two parts of the preceding list. There is some evidence that "folk realism" is culturally variable, only in the "west" do we think "we are our body" and there is "no ghost in the machine".
Try imagining being a robot? Could one be downloaded into a robot body. What does this mean for personal identity? What about illness? How does this work with mind and body being regarded to operated in different domains? A psychiatric condition is different to a neurogical or physical condition. Is this only a lay perception? A survey carried out on psychiatric professionals shows that they have different views on mania versus addiction versus narcisstic personality disorder get more attributed to psychological factors and thereby attributes responsibility differently for these various conditions. The response was the same as the lay perceptions of these conditions. A mind-brain dichotomy persists in professionals. We are all common-sense dualists!
Going back to religion and anthropological studies of tribes indicates ritual related to animism and ancient ancestors all types of common-sense dualism. This is includes ideas of what happens after death. Some tribes require one's parents to be eaten and otothers this would be anathema
Where does this dualism come from? Is dualism a byproduct of the way human mind developed?
Paul Bloom we intuitively see ourselves as mind and body as autonomous. this is "intuitive dualism". Dualism is not learned it comes for free based on the way the mind is organised. Dualism emerges naturally in child development.
An alligator jumps out of the bushes and gobbles him all up. Baby Mouse is not alive anymore.”However there were no specific religious components to these beleifs, they are pre-religious beliefs...
Just like the adults from the previously mentioned study, the children were asked about dead Baby Mouse’s psychological functioning. “Does Baby Mouse still want to go home'” we asked them. “Does he still feel sick'” “Can he still smell the flowers'” The youngest children in the study, the three- to five-year-olds, were significantly more likely to reason in terms of psychological continuity than children from the two older age groups were.
But here’s the really curious part. Even the preschoolers had a solid grasp on biological cessation; they knew, for example, that dead Baby Mouse didn’t need food or water anymore. They knew he wouldn’t grow up to be an adult mouse. Heck, 85 percent of the youngest kids even told us that his brain no longer worked. Yet most of these very young children then told us that dead Baby Mouse was hungry or thirsty, that he felt better or that he was still angry at his brother.
One couldn’t say that the preschoolers lacked a concept of death, therefore, because nearly all of the kids realized that biological imperatives no longer applied after death. Rather they seemed to have trouble using this knowledge to theorize about related mental functions.
And in a 2005 replication of the Baby Mouse experiment published in the British Journal of Developmental Psychology, psychologist David Bjorklund and I teamed with psychologist Carlos Hernández Blasi of Jaume I University in Spain to compare children in a Catholic school with those attending a public secular school in Castellón, Spain. As in the previous study, an overwhelming majority of the youngest children—five- to six-year-olds—from both educational backgrounds said that Baby Mouse’s mental states survived. The type of curriculum, secular or religious, made no difference. With increasing age, however, culture becomes a factor—the kids attending Catholic school were more likely to reason in terms of psychological continuity than were those at the secular school. There was even a smattering of young extinctivists in the latter camp.[Quote found in forum not from Cohen]
We are susceptible to detect agency ("minds") in our environments even wiht very little information such as seeing animations of triangles.
So do bodies really matter? Is this dualism even innate? Studying infants over understanding solid objects and space and so on. Two 5 month groups of infants are tested wiht either discontinuous and continuous motion. Do infants apply the same expectation between human and solid objects requiring continuity of motion. No, only to object but not to humans, there motion can be discontinuous! This indicative that intutive dualism is innate.
Intutive theories inform cultural ideas... And this leads to our different approaches to psychological versus physical conditions. This leads to qualitatively different approaches to different conditions. And this reasoning can cross over as in her example of "Inner Mind Training" thinking one into having better skin! Mind over matter.
In terms of world culture it is only a privileged minority who thinks there is no ghost in the machine and this wil remain this way unless everyone is exposed to the ideas a few of us are sued to in the" West".
Cohen finishes with a recent study reported by the BBC. Study into near-death experience. People how have out of body experiences during operations who float are unable see hidden books they could not see from the operating tabel.